There are no written sources left in Stockholm about how Carlson made a living. You can’t live on cakes and your aunt’s legacy– perhaps, Karlsonchik opened a window workshop somewhere in Sweden or Finland. There is no evidence left of whether he had children or apprentices.– whether he passed the case to someone. When you see a foreman in uniform overalls entering your house, immediately starting to fussily run around the rooms with a folding ruler and pour numbers, amounts, sizes, formulas,– You have no doubts. In order not to become a victim of some “wrong” Carlsons, we got acquainted with the methods of work of window installation companies, talked with an expert and tried to install a window correctly in a single apartment. On the first floor of a cozy mansion in the city center, instead of already outdated wooden frames, one of the capital’s firms installed a window– so we looked…
Preparing the space for work
Furniture from the room can not be taken out– close the sofas and chairs with covers, free up a large table for the brigade’s tools or a large space on the floor in front of the window. Cover the parquet with plastic film. If you change several windows (there will be a lot of construction debris, cement and wood)– Talk to your home caretaker or janitor: you will need to protect yourself from the dissatisfaction of your neighbors and the administration of the SEC in your area.
Dismantling the old window
The occupation is not very laborious, but dirty. Having removed the platbands, frames with glass, the workers tear off the frame itself with a special tool and completely clean the window opening. A qualified company will immediately provide the most even surface of the slopes and will not turn the whole house and wall around for you. Sill plate (independing on your desire) can be increased in the course of work– Please consider this when placing an order. ATIn our particular case, a grill was also installed outside the window. In order to remove the old grate, the craftsmen used a circular saw.
Tips from experienced people
Installation is best done in the summer– You don’t need to look after the workers, but you need to help them. Prepare the space: move all furniture away from the window, place plastic sheeting on the work site, cover furniture and try to keep surfaces dust-free– cement dust is very bad for breathing. Lay a wet rag in front of the entrance to the room– andyou can wipe your feet, and the damp barrier will not let dust into the corridor. It is better to install windows in turn, and not all at onceLet it take a week.
The glass bindings were removed first.
The frame was then dismantled piece by piece with a crowbar.
Then, using a circular saw, the workers dismantled the grate.
It is already easier to remove the outer frame, given that this is the first floor.
The measurement step was left behind the scenes for the sole reason that the window we use– standard equipment and made according to the most non-original technology: a plastic frame with an integrated aluminum strength profile. Single binding with double glazing. White color. Supplied in a protective film, assembled on site. Installation of a double-glazed window was carried out after installing the frame and carrying out “wet work”: plastering window slopes.
To begin with, the craftsmen fixed brackets for fasteners on a frame made according to measurements (according totwo brackets on the edge). To do this, they used standard sockets for screws and a simple screwdriver. Then the frame was installed in the window opening. Special comment– some customers were dissatisfied with the fact that the imported double-glazed windows with scratches or loose fit– atYou have every chance to protect yourself from these problems by correctly drawing up an agreement with the installer.
Special fasteners are installed on the vertical and horizontal parts of the frames– lamas. They are used when installing windows in brick houses.
When installing, it is very important to know the place where it is most expedient to install a plastic window with a single binding and a double-glazed window. All protective tapes remain on the frame.
Next stage– installation of the window frame in the design position. First, they are leveled, then the symmetry of the installation is checked and the vertical alignment is carried out.
When the frame is installed and leveled, it is fixed to the wall with anchor bolts using a bracket.
Then, holes are drilled in concrete with a perforator and fixed in horizontal planes.
The space between the frame and the window opening is filled with panel polyurethane.
While the slopes were drying, they started installing a double-glazed window. For this, regular plastic rails, a rubber hammer were used, and so that the double-glazed window did not warp, the same plastic wedge strips were used during installation. Then the insulation was installed under the frame. In the same way as in the previous case, all the cracks were filled with mounting foam.
For sealing, the remaining gaps between the frame and polyurethane are filled with foam.
Before closing the slopes, the protective film is removed from the frame, otherwise it cannot be removed after the plaster has dried.
To ensure the rigidity of the structure and the normal functioning of the sash, gaskets are installed between the double-glazed window and the frame. At the same time, the coincidence of the center of gravity of the frame and the double-glazed window is regulated.
The double-glazed window is fixed with glazing beads. To prevent scratches and damage to the glass, only a plastic spatula and a hammer are used to install them.
Important milestone left behind– installation of a drain outside the window. It must be done before finishing the slopes.
The installation of the lattice in this case is due to the first floor of the building. It is produced after finishing the slopes.
Having placed flowers on a wide windowsill, we enjoyed the view from the window. The work was over, but we did not wait for the charming: “Well, we flew …” Although this feeling was in the air.
To avoid condensation on walls and slopes, as well as many problems with windows, it is best to involve a designer or make a thermal calculation. When installing wooden frames with double binding without double-glazed windows, with a edging thickness of more than 100mm the probability of making a mistake many times less.
Windows and those building codes that will be discussed will primarily be of interest to the middle class. Comfort, heat and noise insulation properties of windows are ranked first in the category of windows.
The number of manufacturers of PVC profiles for windows and doors in the Russian market is steadily growing. More than half of window suppliers in Russia– from Germany. This is primarily due to the fact that German firms have extensive experience in the production of so-called “plastic windows”. However, the domestic consumer showed justified caution when buying and implementing PVC windows in domestic conditions, which are not similar to Western European experience. ATour country does not yet have a definitive system for certification of window profiles, however, such influential organizations as GosstroyRussian Federation, “STROYPOLYMERTREST” and “NIISTROYFIZIKI” have developed a system for testing window profiles. ATIn the event that the mandatory certification system is introduced on the Russian market, window profiles will be checked according to 12-15 parameters, among which: static bending strength, reduced resistance to heat transfer of the sash-frame profile system (withreinforcing inserts and without them), softening temperature, impact resistance at negative temperatures, etc. When certifying windows, you will have to take into account such an important parameter as the tightness of double-glazed windows (dew point).
It will be interesting for the consumer to know what awaits him if he turns to charlatans from the window business, so we tried to form an opinion about each type of window.
Windows made of high-quality, environmentally friendly wood according to European technology and standards
Used materials: spruce, maple, pine, larch, oak.
Finish: transparent (clear lacquered) or opaque, in any colour, with clear glossy acrylic paints.
Glazing: single or double glazing– glasses can be tinted or windows with protective functional films can be purchased. Fittings: depending on the capabilities and project of the company, as well as the desire of the customer, foreign or domestic fittings are used. Seals: rubber gaskets, thermoplastic elastomers. Main Requirements– durability and strength, tight fit, all together providing high tightness. Window sills, platbands and other accessories can be supplied complete.
Materials used: aluminum profile (designed specifically for domestic harsh conditions).
Finish: opaque, any colors, heat-treated powder enamel. Glazing: single or double glazing– glasses can be tinted or windows with protective functional films can be purchased. Fittings: depending on the capabilities and project of the company; foreign fittings are used. Seals: rubber gaskets, thermoplastic elastomers. Main Requirements– durability and strength, tight fit, all together providing high tightness. Window sills, platbands and other accessories can be supplied complete.
Advantages of aluminum windows– lack of joints of materials of different thermal conductivity (there is only a thermal insert), resistance to deformation during operation, ease of installation.
Plastic windows (metal-plastic windows)
Materials used: polyvinyl chloride with steel or aluminum reinforcement. Finish: opaque, main color– white, mass tinting is possible (mahogany, oak, mahogany, rosewood, etc.). Glazing: single or double glazing– glasses can be tinted or windows with protective functional films can be purchased. Fittings: depending on the capabilities and project of the company, as well as the desire of the customer, foreign fittings are used. Seals: rubber gaskets, thermoplastic elastomers. Main Requirements– durability and strength, tight fit, all together providing high tightness. Window sills, platbands and other accessories can be supplied complete: ebbs, blinds, mosquito nets.
Plastic windows, as a rule, are single-paneled (we know of only one plant, in Kazan, which produces double-paneled plastic windows with single glazing (without double-glazed windows)).
Plastic window casings have their advantages for rooms with a high level of humidity.– in an air-conditioned room, as well as in a sauna or bathroom– Wet rooms. The complexity of single-pane windows is that they use double-glazed windows– expiration date of the double-glazed window 10-15years, and the cost of a window largely depends on the price of a double-glazed window.
The consumer needs to know about the cold bridge– some imaginary temperature line, in relation to which the window must be correctly set– so that irreversible internal temperature damage does not occur (as if you clog water in a bottle and expose it to frost). When determining the installation location for a single-pane window, both heaters and wall thickness must be taken into account. A plastic window with a double-glazed window is more energy efficient: high thermal protection and light transmission save money heat 15-20%.
Over 50years of operation in wooden frames, it is unlikely that the glass will need to be replaced, while in plastic or aluminum windows, it may be necessary to replace the double-glazed window three or four times.
One more problem– different thermal conductivity of plastic and metal in the steel frame of the frame. ATIf the frame is installed incorrectly, it may crack or become skewed.
The appearance of frost on the window or double-glazed window up to -25FROM – obvious evidence of incorrect installation. Presumable reasons may be: an unaccounted for air conditioner that creates high humidity in the room, closing the window with curtains, provided that the window is too extended to the street side. ATIf you use an air conditioner, you can install triple-glazed windows in your home, but you must definitely check the certificate of conformity with natural light standards. Frost that occurs on the windows at a temperature interval from -25FROMup to -35FROM, – the phenomenon is undesirable, but likely for windows with a single binding (the certificate for many double-glazed windows takes into account the maximum temperature for double-glazed windows of -31FROM).
Locking slopes and walls– a condition unacceptable for any interior. There is a designer or installer error– the window is too close to the house. To fix problems, it is best to use the services of the company that installed the windows.
double glazing– two or three layers of glass connected around the perimeter with an adhesive and an iron profile– inDepending on the number of layers of glass, there are one- and two-chamber. From the chambers of the double-glazed window, either air is pumped out (vacuum double-glazed window), or the space is filled with an inert gas (for example, argon). ATideal double glazing– a durable thing, however, under certain conditions, depressurization can occur, leading to quite sad consequences. Depressurization depends on the quality of the sealant applied to the inner spacer frame of the double-glazed window. AtFor manufacturers of this sealant, the main quality criteria are adhesion to glass and materials of the inner distance frame of an insulating glass unit and low water and gas vapor permeability. Distance frames are from 6 to 24mm, and the sealing zone can be strengthened using double sealing, for example, butyl and two-component polysulfide. Quality assurance is different for many companies, but does not exceed 10-12years.
A window with double or triple glazing (single and double glazing, respectively) after depressurization will bring the consumer many problems:
Dust in a double-glazed window will reduce light transmission.
Frost and fogging of windows may appear.
ATbuildings with air conditioning in the gap between the panes of the double-glazed window (if it is depressurized) water vapor can accumulate– when water freezes, the double-glazed window will simply crack (so far this has not happened yet, but there is a saying: if something can happen at all, you need to expect it at any moment).
When analyzing the window market, first of all and especially it is necessary to note wooden frames with double glazing that have been used in Russia for a long time (these frames are installed in all newly built panel houses). Wood– the material is durable, can stand, with proper installation, up to fifty years. Preference is given to larch, maple, oak, pine and spruce. Obvious Advantage– cheapness of separate glass, unlike a double-glazed window.
In the Central region, a sealing porch is required. Windows in separate double sashes– similar to those that now stand in many block houses, only with a smaller glazing area,– save energy costs.