The publication a
Photo by V. Grigoriev
The publication b
The publication in
Windows of a non-standard shape, for example, arched (a), as well as with a decorative layout (b) and curly elements (c), are made of both wood and plastic

The publication a
Architects M.Rekevicienė and L.Rekevicius
Photo by V.Nefedov
The publication b
The publication in
The publication G
Today, wooden windows (a — c) are made only from glued laminated timber, so they do not warp with changes in humidity. However, the coating on the outer surfaces of the frame parts should be protected with a special mastic. Any window can be equipped with a roller mosquito net (g)
The publication «Window Factory»
The main scope of aluminum structures in the private sector— winter gardens and glazing of balconies
The publication rehau
The publication «Ecowindows»
The appearance of the window and the design of the window opening are of great importance for the interior of the room.
The publication a
The publication b
Wooden windows with protective and decorative aluminum lining: on the frame and sash (a); only on the bottom profile of the box (b)
The publication profine Group
Sometimes, in order to save money, some of the sashes are made deaf (they are made from a box profile, fixing the double-glazed window with a special glazing bead). It is important that at the same time you have the opportunity to wash the window without resorting to the services of climbers
The publication Architects A. Sobolev and V. Vinogradova
Photo by V.Nefedov
If the window does not blow warm air from the battery, condensation will almost certainly fall on the glass, and even frost may appear in winter. ATIn this case, in order to ensure convective blowing of the double-glazed window, a number of holes were drilled in the countertop
The publication a
The publication b
The publication in
Photo by V. Grigoriev
Details of window fittings: ordinary hinge for a plastic window (a); universal element for locking a sash window (allows you to open the sashes both together and separately) (b); adjustable loop (c)
The publication VEKA
Alphaline system (VEKA) with a six-chamber sash and a seven-chamber frame. Box profile reinforced with square pipe
The publication profine Group
Parallel-sliding portal structures are made from profiles for interior doors. Only a special set of fittings is required, such as Atrium HKS (Hautau), SKB System (MACO), Patio (Roto)
The publication a
The publication b
profine Group
For the production of lift-and-slide doors, expensive fittings are required, which include a metal threshold with guide tracks (a) and retractable roller carriages (b)
The publication Wintech
Four-chamber profile system Thermotech 742 70 widemm. Reduced resistance to heat transfer 0.89m2C/W
The publication Architects A. Sobolev and V. Vinogradova
Photo by V.Nefedov

The publication

Over the past 20-30 years, a window has turned from a simple carpentry product into a high-tech product that surpasses its predecessor in all respects. Therefore, it is not surprising that repairs in an apartment often involve a complete replacement of external glazing.

The publication Architect S. Zhernoklev
Photo by E.Kulibaba What do we mean by «modern window»? First of all, perhaps, frame structures. The latter are today made from profiles of complex cross-section, the material for which is plastic, wood, aluminum and their combinations, and the palm, of course, belongs to polyvinyl chloride (PVC windows will be mainly discussed in our article). The type of window binding mainly affects the strength, tightness and «external data» of the window. Other critical design elements — double-glazed window and a set of accessories. The first is «responsible» for light transmission, heat and sound insulation, the second — for the convenience of opening and closing, as well as for the burglary resistance of the doors. Finally, an indispensable component of the new approach to building glazing is the installation technology, which has changed no less than the window itself.

Glazing replacement is an expensive undertaking. In order not to suffer a serious loss, you will have to sort out a lot of problems. Now we will talk about what you should pay attention to when choosing windows for an apartment.

Proud Profile

The first step is to decide on the material of the window frames. The most common dilemma — wood or plastic. Paying tribute to established priorities, many are trying to find wooden structures at the price of plastic ones (that is, no more than 7-8 thousand rubles per 1m2). Alas, this is not possible. After all, budgetary wooden «eurowindows» exist only in advertising brochures. Even products made of engineered solid pine, painted with white enamel, which many sellers call budget, will cost at least 60% more than PVC counterparts. (And this is understandable, because extrusion from a plastic mass is, in fact, a waste-free production, while during woodworking up to 50% of the material turns into sawdust.) Moreover, they will have to be operated more carefully, protected from abrasives and accidental impacts and periodically tinted on the outside (even the best enamels begin to crack and flake off the surface after a few years; if the windows overlook a busy highway, the «life» of the paintwork is reduced several times). Structures made of «warm» aluminum are characterized by a long service life (more than 50 years) and high strength: this material can be used to make doors that are 1.2-1.5 times larger than those made of wood, and 2-2 .5 times more than those made of PVC. However, in terms of thermal insulation, they lose to their competitors. ToIn addition, the cost of aluminum windows with a polyamide thermal break is quite high: profiles painted with white enamel cost 20-40% more than wooden ones, and when finished under wood, their price increases by another 1.5 times. But «cold» aluminum structures for glazing balconies are quite affordable They are sometimes cheaper than plastic ones.

Among the combined windows, the most common are wood with external protective aluminum lining, wood with an additional external aluminum sash, and aluminum (from «warm» profiles) with an internal wooden finish. The average cost of the first — from 20 thousand rubles. for 1m2second — from 27 thousand rubles. for 1m2third — from 35 thousand rubles. for 1m2.

As for the ratio of price and quality, it is simply impossible to compete with plastic windows, therefore they dominate the market of translucent structures. Atmany of us are familiar with the names of high-profile brands owned by PVC profile manufacturers: KBE, TROCAL, Kommerling (the owner of all three is the profine concern), Aluplast, Gealan, Rehau, VEKA (all — Germany), Deceuninck (Belgium), ExProf (Russia), Wintech andothers

For the manufacture of a window, different profiles are required: one for the sash, others for the frame, third for imposts, fourth for shtulps andt.e. The profiles of the box, sash and impost, which are responsible for the strength characteristics of the structure, are called the main ones, and the set of profiles necessary for assembling windows of various configurations, — profile system. A reinforcing insert (usually steel, less often composite) is placed inside the main profiles. It gives them strength and partly compensates for the effect of thermal curvature that occurs when there is a significant difference in temperature between outdoor and indoor air. To date, systems are recognized as optimal for central Russia, the main profiles of which have four or five chambers, a width of about 70mm and two sealing circuits. ATunlike three-chamber ones, they do not freeze through even in the most severe winters.

Hundreds of large and small Russian companies manufacture windows. Most of them are official «processors» of one profile or another. This implies the availability of professional equipment, trained personnel and some control from the profile manufacturers. The interest of the latter in the quality of windows is easy to understand: a large amount of marriage can discredit the trademark.

You can buy windows from «processors» or their dealers (so-called installation companies). What’s better? There is no definite answer to this question. The fact is that some large window manufacturers do not have a developed network of retail sales or do not work with single orders at all. BUTdealers can offer a wide range of products in different profiles, are available to customers locally and, using a dealer discount, often sell windows cheaper than manufacturers. Of course, when buying from a dealer, you need to ask who made the window so as not to purchase the product of a one-day semi-handicraft workshop. It is also important to know that the manufacturer provides a comprehensive warranty covering the window itself and installation, and the dealer — separate. Atthe second option has a drawback: in practice it is not always easy to establish what caused the breakdown — manufacturing defect or careless installation.

If you purchase windows through an online store (factory or dealer), you should use the so-called calculator, which is available on almost every site. At the same time, you will independently determine the configuration and scheme of opening the window, and then you will be able to convey your wishes to managers who seek to include in the order a maximum of additional (perhaps you do not need at all) options.

Expert opinion

Not all PVC window profiles are the same. For the first time they were divided into quality classes in the German RAL standard. Later, this classification was transferred to the European standards DIN ISO EN 12608, as well as to the Russian GOST. It is based on the different wall thicknesses of the profiles. Classes are denoted by the letters A (highest), B (middle) and C (low). Windows made from profiles of different classes differ from each other primarily in such parameters as mechanical strength and dimensional stability. One of the most problematic parts of a window is the gusset, which has no metal reinforcement inside. Atwindows made from class B profiles, the angular strength is 20% lower than that of the same products made from class A profiles. All other divisions of windows and profiles into «simple» and «elite» — a figment of the imagination of advertising managers of window companies. Even the seemingly obvious classification of different profile programs according to their heat engineering coefficients is also problematic. It’s like trying to classify cars by wheel size or engine power. Such a separation is, of course, possible, but it has nothing to do with the quality of the window.

Sergey Elnikov, head of marketing department at BEKA Rus

Transparent comfort

The cost and characteristics of a window largely depend on the type and formula of double-glazed windows. The most common are single- and double-chamber double-glazed windows made of ordinary silicate glasses with a thickness of 4mm with dry air filling and aluminum spacer. Meanwhile, the range of double-glazed windows is extremely wide, and most sellers are able to offer a fairly rich assortment of these products (although they are not always interested in this, since they have enough orders for «standard» windows). By the way, we note that not all window manufacturers produce double-glazed windows themselves. — many (not necessarily small ones) buy them from specialized enterprises that have automated lines.

urban style

The window is an important element of the interior. Often, designers are not satisfied with the traditional white color of the frames. Meanwhile, architectural supervision authorities object to changing the appearance of the building’s facades. There are usually no problems with plastic windows, because they can only be laminated from the inside. Painting a wooden window on both sides in different colors will increase its value by about 20%. Another option is to equip the windows with aluminum exterior trims painted in white enamel. But at the same time, the structures will move into the category of combined ones, and their price will increase by 30-70%.

The publication profine Group The publication profine Group The publication Wintech

As for the choice of glazing, in some cases it is possible to give very specific recommendations. For example, for large-format and roof (roof) windows, safety packages with tempered glass are required, crumbling into small fragments upon impact. It is advisable to install protective double-glazed windows with triplex on the first and last floors. If the apartment is cold or you want to increase the glazing area (for example, by turning the loggia into a bay window), it makes sense to equip the windows with energy-saving double-glazed windows with low-emissivity glass and/or inert gas filling. Two-chamber asymmetric double-glazed windows with unequal chamber widths (say, 8 and 12mm) or glasses of various thicknesses (for example, 4 and 6mm). Sometimes — mostly in the attic — It is worth using self-cleaning glass with a pyrolytic coating. We give the characteristics of some double-glazed windows in the table, hoping that the reader himself will draw the necessary conclusions and make a decision.

Despite the fact that a double-glazed window is more resistant to deforming loads than single glasses, it still remains the most vulnerable part of the window. The fragile material is threatened not only by the balls of street football players, but also by “internal enemies”. Sometimes, due to hidden assembly defects (for example, poor gluing of the edge seam, the use of low-quality sealants and spacers), the double-glazed window is depressurized, and such a nuisance can happen even several years after the installation of the window. At the same time, moisture gets between the glasses, and in winter they begin to fog up. Spontaneous destruction of double-glazed windows often occurs under the influence of the so-called frosty collapse and other factors, which sometimes even specialists cannot determine.

Most often, a double-glazed window is easy to dismantle. If the window is made of PVC, it is enough to carefully pry the glazing beads with a screwdriver and remove them. It is much more difficult to purchase a new double-glazed window. These products, unlike single glass, are not sold on the construction markets. You will have to contact the manufacturer or a window repair company, whose delivery and installation services are sometimes much more expensive than the «spare part» itself. (Note that post-warranty maintenance of PVC windows, unfortunately, is not yet sufficiently developed and is not cheap.) For some windows and balcony doors, double-glazed windows are glued into the sashes with silicone, polysulfide or rubber sealant during assembly. It is not always possible to replace the double-glazed window in this case. — it is often necessary to install a new sash, which increases the cost of repairs by at least 2 times.

Expert opinion

Gluing a double-glazed window into a sash allows you to significantly increase the strength and geometric stability of PVC profile window structures, as well as to abandon steel reinforcement, which improves the thermal and physical characteristics of the window. However, not all gluing methods are equally good. Energeto technology has a number of advantages. Firstly, a double-glazed window is glued almost along the entire perimeter for its entire thickness, which ensures the strength of the connection. Secondly, the technology provides for the use of casement profiles with a flat glazing rebate. This makes it easier to fill the gap with sealant and allows you to easily cut the seam with a knife if you need to replace the double-glazed window. Thirdly, a special petal prevents the sealant from penetrating into the area of ​​u200bu200bthe drainage holes.

Dmitry Molokanov, technical specialist of Aluplast Rus

Windows open…

A set of fittings for a hinged window includes dozens of parts. The main ones are the hinges that lock the trunnions, strikers and mechanical drive rods that transmit force from the control handle to the trunnions.

Replacing fittings on an installed window is not always easy and in all cases very expensive. Therefore, you need to carefully consider the scheme for opening future windows and equip them with reliable products from European manufacturers such as GU, Hautau, Roto (all — Germany), MACO (Austria). There are two main types of window fittings. — swivel and tilt-and-turn. The second is almost 2 times more expensive (equipping one sash of a window with it increases its cost by 25-30%), but it provides comfortable ventilation. Tilt and turn fittings must be equipped with a so-called erroneous action blocker, otherwise, when the handle is turned in the wrong direction, the sash may simply fall out of the frame. There are also special «safe» accessories on the market, which are needed primarily so that children do not open the window in your absence (or can only open it in the ventilation mode). ATsuch a kit includes a locking mechanism built into the handle. Another useful option — adjustable hinges, allowing to increase the pressure of the sash to the frame and thus increase the tightness of the window. This is usually necessary after several years of operation, when the seals are slightly deformed.

For the inhabitants of the first and last floors, the problem of burglary resistance of windows is relevant (generally speaking, it worries most homeowners, since you can also enter the balcony from a neighboring apartment). We note right away that this parameter is not standardized by any of the Russian standards. Sellers, indicating the class of burglar resistance, refer to the European norms DIN V ENV 1627-1630. To obtain the first class (resistance to an intruder for 2-4 minutes without special tools), the presence of anti-burglary elements (mushroom-shaped pins and reinforced strikers) at the corners of the leaves, reinforcement of the profiles with a steel insert from a square pipe, protection against drilling of fittings and equipping the window with a lock under key. Windows of the second class (resistance up to 10 minutes) must be equipped with double-glazed windows with triplex; at the same time, in order to reduce gaps, it is necessary that all standard locking elements be anti-burglary and adjustable. Atwindows of the third class (resistance up to 20 min) double-glazed windows with protective triplex — in its design use especially strong reinforcing films — they are glued into the sashes, the number of locking points is increased, and the welds are reinforced with overhead steel corners and plates.

Expert opinion

The vast majority of apartments in the old housing stock, as well as in the houses of many new series, are designed for natural forced ventilation through windows. After the installation of modern sealed structures, the air flow stops and there is literally nothing to breathe in the apartment. In the absence of an air conditioning system with fresh air admixture, the micro-ventilation function helps to solve the problem, although to the detriment of the principles of energy saving and sound insulation. To do this, the window is equipped with special fittings that allow the sash to open slightly when the handle is turned 45. Slot width 5-20mm appears at the top of the window, and due to this there is no draft. Window and wall valves serve as an alternative to micro-ventilation. True, the latter are quite rarely mounted in already built buildings, since this is associated with high costs for drilling the outer wall. But window devices are quite diverse, and besides, they are easy to install even after the repair is completed (although it is preferable that this be done during the production of the window).

Vladimir Kalabin, technical specialist at Profine RUS

Attention door!

Almost all apartments have a balcony or loggia, so when ordering windows, you will have to take care of the balcony door. These products are most often assembled from ordinary PVC window profiles, supplying the canvas with a horizontal impost and a lower insert (panel) from a heat-insulating sandwich panel. Such a door can be equipped with turn-only or tilt-and-turn fittings.

It is quite possible to make a non-imposted canvas glazed to the bottom. But, in order to give it strength, you will have to glue a double-glazed window into the sash, and it is advisable to use a special profile (it is called a profile for interior doors), which is higher than the window one. In addition, due to the increased weight of the sash, a set of fittings with reinforced hinges will be required, and for a tilt-and-turn sash — also with reinforced «scissors». All this will increase the cost of the door by at least 60%. It is not easy to find a company that at an affordable price will produce a door that opens outward, — this type is considered non-standard, and special fitting kits for it are rarely available.

If desired, you can install the so-called portal structure — parallel-sliding or lifting-sliding, not inferior to hinged in terms of thermal insulation. However, such products (especially of the second type, technically more advanced) are not offered by all window manufacturers. ATIn particular, large «processors» of the VEKA profile are able to quickly fulfill an order for a lift-and-slide door, since the supplier provides them with ready-made assembly kits for these products. But the cost of sliding structures, as before, is high. — they cost 2-4 times more expensive than swing ones.

AndOne more note regarding structures glazed to the floor. Often they cause drafts, and the bottom of the double-glazed window fogs up in frosty weather. This is due to the fact that warm air from the heating radiator does not blow on the glass. Experts advise to build a convector into the floor in front of the door, but this must be foreseen at the stage of developing an apartment design project.

We hope that our article will help readers choose the right windows for an apartment. At the same time, we note that almost half of the success depends on the quality of the installation work. ATIn the next issue, we will reveal the secrets of installing translucent structures.

The publication

Is it true that wooden windows «breathe»?

The publication

The answer to this question depends on what you mean by this word. Indeed, the tree has a capillary-porous structure and is able to pass a certain amount of air and water vapor — about 2.5m3 per day after 1m2
surfaces. (Note that wooden parts are coated with special thin-dispersion vapor-permeable varnishes and paints that prevent fungus damage.) Meanwhile, the living room requires an inflow of at least 30m3 fresh air per hour. That is, the ability of wooden windows to «breathe» has nothing to do with providing the necessary air permeability of structures and ventilation of rooms. The methods of organizing air exchange through windows are similar for all modern translucent structures, regardless of the material from which they are made.

Svetlana Borisova, chief technologist at Ecookna

Why are window vents needed?

The publication

Window valves are divided into folded and overhead. The throughput of the first is small — no more than 7m3/ h, and they are intended mainly to reduce the humidity in the room (this reduces the likelihood of condensation on the windows). The latter are quite capable of providing normative air exchange in the apartment with the windows closed, and the amount of incoming air is regulated (manually or automatically). It is important that the soundproofing of the housing does not suffer: the best devices are equipped with special acoustic visors and sound-absorbing inserts that provide a significant reduction in street noise. The valves are located in the upper part of the window, so the air enters the room heated due to the convection of warm air from the batteries.

Vyacheslav Krivovyazov, technical specialist of Aereko company

What are drainage holes in profiles and why are they needed?

The publication

The sashes of modern windows are quite tightly adjacent to the frame, but still the window cannot be equated with the porthole of a spaceship. ATin rainy and windy weather, moisture can penetrate through the seals into the rebate area, as well as between the sash trim and the double-glazed window. To ensure the watertightness of the structure, it must be drained. To do this, holes are drilled or milled in the lower profiles of the frame and sash, through which moisture enters the outer chamber of the profile, and is removed from it. But the drainage will work properly only if there are additional holes necessary to equalize the air pressure in the seam cavity and on the street (they are made in the upper part of the frames and sashes). Without such holes, the pressure of the wind can «lock» the water inside the profile. With proper drainage, the window remains watertight at pressures up to 600 Pa (this is comparable to the impact of the strongest hurricane).

Dmitry Vlasenko, Technical Director of Vintek Plastik

Is marriage possible when arranging drainage holes in window profiles?

The publication

First of all, the holes must be of sufficient size. — at least 30×6mm (or drill several holes with a diameter of 8mm), otherwise they simply will not «work»: surface tension forces will not allow water to leave the rebate. In addition, sometimes when drilling, the wall of the middle chamber of the profile is damaged. — the one in which the metal reinforcing insert is located. ATIn this case, water does not flow out, but accumulates in this chamber, which inevitably leads to numerous unpleasant consequences. The reinforcement rusts, and as a result, the form stability of the structure decreases. In winter, water turns into ice, a «cold bridge» appears between the room and the street, and the profile freezes through. Checking if marriage is allowed is very simple: just look into the drainage hole, highlighting it. If you see metal or silicone sealant there, the product will be replaced under warranty.

Albert Fogelman, Technical Director of LG Hausys Rus

The editors would like to thank Aluplast Rus, Aereco, VEKA Rus,
«Vintek Plastik», «profine RUS», «Ekookna» for their help in preparing the material.

  • Source: Ideas for Your Home Magazine#151


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